* Yi Liu Hua    (Six knives of the mint of Yi City). Yi is often listed as Yi Liu Huo.

** Ming Hua (Ming knife) is often listed as Ming Dao or Ming Huo.

*** Yi Hua (One knife) is often listed as Yi Dao.

Wang YŁ Ch'Łan is one of the best experts on this area. He gives a very plausible explanation of the etymology of these characters in Early Chinese Coinage in the chapter about round coins page 187. See round coins.

The character is the designation for knifecoins. It is in almost all Western coin books written huo, even in Wang's book. This is based on a reconstructed pronunciation, and it is not used by chinese numismatists. It can only create confusion if Western numismatists uses ancient pronunciation for Chinese characters and coin names.